The Golf Book is one of the most interesting Renaissance manuscripts from Belgium, specifically Bruges. The codex, also known as Il libro del Golf, was written and illuminated in the second quarter of the 16th century and it features 21 superbly illustrated full-page miniatures, calendar, and over 40 historiated borders by the hand of one of the most renown Flemish artists: Simon Bening.
The Reason behind its Title
Written in Latin, the Golf Book is certainly a fascinating book as it displays a collection of sports activities and pastimes typical of the period in which the manuscript was created. Its title is the result of a miniature on f. 27r (a calendar page of the month of September) where four men are depicted playing a game that resembles golf.
It is worth mentioning that the pages are not in their original order, for, originally, there would have been the calendar, followed by the book of hours, and finally the miniature of Boniface of Lausanne, which is now on f. 1r.
Iconography of the Golf Book
In addition to the full-page miniatures, the iconography of the Golf Book incorporates other types of illustrations, especially along the borders, such as medallions, architectonic decoration, and cameos in which he applied the grisaille and semi-grisaille technique, that is the use of different shades of grey.
Although only 23 pages of the manuscript remain, they are certainly enough to identify the hand that created such a remarkable iconographic apparatus. The illustrations are the work of Simon Bening, son of Alexander Bening, and his workshop in Bruges where he finally settled in around 1519.
A Beautiful Example of Gothic Script
The Book of Golf exhibits a superb example of Gothic script and appears to have been made for a Swiss patron, as the presence of the miniature of Boniface of Lausanne would seem to suggest. What is certain is that the codex ended up among the possessions of Ernst, Freiherr (baron) von Pöllnitz (1813-1900), chamberlain of Ludwig I of Bavaria and of duke Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, curator, and historian who owned it before selling it to the British Museum on April, 13th 1861.
Unfortunately, like many medieval manuscripts, the Golf Book lost its original binding which was replaced with a German one dated back to the 1800 and featuring velvet and metalwork. The manuscript now displays a British Museum in-house binding with gauffered and gilt edges, dated 1927.
- Images courtesy of the British Library