Philadelphia, Free Library of Philadelphia, Widener 1

Jacques Bruyant: The Way of Poverty or Riches Facsimile Edition

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Made in Paris in the fifteenth-century, this French manuscript features the text of La Voie de Povreté ou de Richesse (The Way of Poverty or of Wealth), an allegorical poem written by the French poet Jacques Bruyant around 1342. The allegorical dream vision follows the progress of a newlywed man through his dream, accompanied by the figure of Raison, from whom he learns the virtues of undertaking hard work, while laboring as a craftsman in the Chastel de Labor.

Only One Single Illustrated Copy in the World

The text was written around 1342 by Jacques Bruyant, a clergyman from Paris. A great number of copies bear testimony to the popularity of his work. However, only one single copy has been illustrated with countless colorful miniatures: the illuminated manuscript kept in the Free Library in Philadelphia under the shelfmark Widener 1.

An Exclusive Work of Art

The exuberant decoration of this manuscript immediately catches the eye: its 73 folios in the format of 20.7 x 14.4 cm are embellished with a total of 45 miniatures, whose glowing colors are charmingly highlighted with gold leaf, brush-applied gold, and even silver in some parts.

In addition, each of the miniatures is framed with dense scrollwork consisting of gold-shimmering ivy leaves, interspersed with acanthus leaves, countless little flowers, and often fruit and animals. Seventy-four carefully painted initials on golden ground decorate not only the illustrated pages but also some text pages that are likewise often enhanced with a golden vine scroll.

Discovering Life and Work in Medieval Times

The fascinating picture gallery of the book carries us off to the domiciles of medieval men, even to the seclusion of their sleeping chambers, past laboring peasants, blooming fields and green hills.

We gaze up at the walls of massive castles or wander along winding paths leading down to the narrow streets of cities in the distance. As unspectacular as these details may seem, it is precisely their ordinariness that proves captivating as an authentic document of reality, reaching us through the centuries.

The Distinctive Style of the Bedford Master

This priceless work is part of a small group of illuminated manuscripts made in the circle of the famous Bedford Master from Paris. Starting from ca. 1410, the talented artist remained one of the most significant illuminators in Europe for more than a quarter of a century.

His art was inspired by the genius of the three Limbourg brothers, but he also introduced completely new creative elements. The well-balanced compositions from his prolific workshop are striking both for their refined coloring and for an unseen three-dimensionality of forms and faces.

His artistic influence is also visible in The Way of Poverty or Riches: the accomplished handling of perspective, the fresh coloring of the miniatures and the sumptuous borders impressively convey all the magic and splendor of the Bedford style.

Der Weiche Stil – The Crowning of the Late Gothic Period

Talented artists such as the Bedford Master in Paris or artists from his immediate surroundings mutually inspired each other in the early 15th century, raising the Gothic style to outstanding heights. A new common language of the arts emerged that was understood in Paris and Prague, in Florence and Cologne alike: the so-called "Weicher Stil" ("Soft Style") of the International Gothic was born.

Stimulated by the outstanding art of the Bedford workshop, the artist endorsed the revolution in painting and created a lavishly decorated manuscript which perfectly reflected the harmonious, even poetic character of the Soft Style.

His images offer a fascinating insight into the medieval world largely through details: individual facial expressions and countless realistic elements, such as bedroom furniture, tools, and garments betray his exact sense of observation. Softly flowing drapery folds create a completely personal form of realistic rendering.


Red velvet with precious gilt edges and four gilt silver fittings.

We have 1 facsimile edition of the manuscript "Jacques Bruyant: The Way of Poverty or Riches": Buch vom erfüllten Leben facsimile edition, published by Faksimile Verlag, 2005

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Manuscript book description compiled by the publisher.
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Buch vom erfüllten Leben

Lucerne or Munich: Faksimile Verlag, 2005

  • Commentary (French, German) by König, Eberhard; Bartz, Gabriele; Lang, William; Himmelsbach, Siegbert
  • Limited Edition: 980 copies
  • Full-size color reproduction of the entire original document, Jacques Bruyant: The Way of Poverty or Riches: the facsimile attempts to replicate the look-and-feel and physical features of the original document; pages are trimmed according to the original format; the binding might not be consistent with the current document binding.

The commentary volume to this facsimile edition includes a complete translation of the text into modern French and German. The facsimile is available in an acrylic glass case.


The facsimile binding perfectly imitates the current original binding, a red velvet binding, complete with precious gilt edges and four gilt silver fittings.

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