Rome, Abbazia di S. Paolo fuori le Mura

Biblia Sacra: Codex Membranaceus Saeculi IX Facsimile Edition

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The Biblia Sacra, containing the Old Testaments in their entirety, is a more sumptuous book than any other surviving Carolingian Bible. It has 35 magnificently decorated incipit pages introducing the individual sections of the manuscript.

The beginnings of the chapters in the book of Genesis, like the names of the ancestors of Christ, are written in gold and silver on purple, in two columns framed by acanthus; four canon tables feature arcades richly decorated with figures and ornamentation; throughout the text there are numerous handsome initials; and above all, the 24 full-page miniatures (originally there was one for the book of Job, traces of which remain visible) constitute the most extensive cycle in any surviving Carolingian illuminated Bible.

In addition to the dedication picture already referred to, there are an image of St. Jerome, 14 illustrations to books of the Old Testament, a picture of Christ in majesty, the four Evangelists, and a picture apiece for the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of St. Paul, and Revelation.

Doubtless a number of scribes were required to write the text. The principal master is generally taken to be the Ingobert referred to in the poem of dedication (a scribe and not, as sometimes claimed, the miniaturist of this Bible), whose hand can also be proven in other books of that era and region.

In their style, the miniatures exhibit a tendency to hark back to the approaches taken under Charlemagne in Aachen, a tendency characteristic of book production under Charles the Bald.

Apart from this fundamental tenor, there are also reminiscences, extending into details, of the large and sumptuous Bibles made not very much earlier in Tours, such as the celebrated Vivian Bible, which had also been commissioned by Charles the Bald, around the year 845; and reminiscences too of the Bible completed around 840 in Moutier-Grandval, now in the British Library in London.

Furthermore, the influence of the Reims school may be detected throughout in the treatment of figures and in the nature of the decoration, and, behind the aesthetics of Reims, the legacy of late antiquity.

While the quality of the script and penmanship are subject to vagaries, the manner can ultimately be traced to the important scriptorium of Archbishop Hincmar of Reims (845-882).

This was not untypical for this late point in the Carolingian era, or for the production of manuscripts books at the court school of Charles the Bald.

The manuscript appears to have passed to Pope John VIII in Rome as a gift from Charles the Bald on the occasion of his coronation as Emperor in the year 875. Documents show the book to have been in Rome in the 11th century. Under Pope Gregory VII (Pope from 1073 to 1085) it passed to the Abbey of San Paolo fuori le Mura.

Binding description

Red morocco; gilt lettering and decoration; gilt metal corner pieces and gilt metal central decoration on upper and lower covers.

We have 1 facsimile edition of the manuscript "Biblia Sacra: Codex Membranaceus Saeculi IX": Bibbia di San Paolo facsimile edition, published by Editalia

Bibbia di San Paolo

Rome: Editalia

  • Commentary (Italian) by Arnaldi, Girolamo; Baiocchi, Stefano; Bischoff, Bernhard; Henri de Sainte-Marie; Lilli di Franco, Maria; Gahede, Joachim; Gribomont, Jean; Mallet, Jean; Mütherich, Florentine; Nardin, Giuseppe; Pisani, Steven; Pratesi, Alessandro; Werner, Karl Ferdinand
  • Limited Edition: 1000 copies
  • This facsimile is complete (full-size color reproduction of the whole original document).

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